Africa’s Smart Cities of the Future: Ideologies and Shared Challenges

Africa is the second most populous continent in the world and its population is projected to double by 2050. It is also the world’s fastest growing continent and most of this growth is expected to be absorbed by urban areas. This rapid urbanisation continues to present unprecedented challenges for Africa’s urban areas as they grapple with an increasing infrastructure deficit exacerbated by sprawling and fragmented development. How will African urban areas absorb this population bulge against the backdrop of these multifaceted challenges and at the same improve overall quality of life? This is the fundamental question facing Africa’s policymakers, who are now starting to acknowledge the growing global trend of leveraging technological innovations of the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR).

Over the past few years, several “smart cities” have been gradually emerging in various parts of the African continent. Smart cities make use of an integrated system of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) devices to improve city efficiency and improve quality of life. Prominent examples of emerging African smart cities include Eko Atlantic in Nigeria, Vision City in Rwanda, Konza Technology City in Kenya, Lanseria smart city in South Africa, and New Cairo in Egypt, among others. While it is still too early to gauge the socio-economic impact of these new smart cities, they present new opportunities for us to rethink our city planning approaches and accelerate the embedment of technology in our city fabrics. Due to Africa’s limited drawbacks in legacy systems, the continent also has a unique advantage of efficiently leveraging these technological transitions and easily implement new technologies.

However, the adoption of the smart city model in African cities has equally been subjected to considerable criticism in both the academic and professional circles of city planning. Concerns relate to these cities ultimately turning out to be profit driven spatial enclaves that will only appeal to and benefit a privileged minority. Poverty and inequality are rampant in Africa. For Africa’s smart cities to be truly inclusive and improve quality of life, citizen participation must be a non-negotiable. Citizens must be given a platform to actively engage in and influence decisions relating to the broad spectrum of smart city initiatives and their implementation.

Another key challenge directly linked to the above relates to conflicting views between developers and local planning authorities on the visions of these smart city development projects. A good case in point is the Modderfontein Smart City project in Johannesburg which was abandoned in 2016 as a result of the reluctancy of the developer to incorporate the wishes of the City Council in the plan. The research conducted by Ricardo Reboredo on this project’s failure indicates that the developer’s “…aspirations to produce a high-end, mixed-used development did not fit with the City of Johannesburg’s approach. Rather than a luxurious global hub, the city wanted a more inclusive development – one which reflected the principles outlined in its 2014 Spatial Development Framework”.

It is indisputable that for Africa’s future smart cities to be inclusive and achieve long term sustainability, a collaborative approach is needed. Citizens must be the focal point and technology be the enabler. This implies that there will be a great deal of demand for capabilities in interdisciplinary approaches to urban planning and technological innovation.  

About the author

Robert Ndebele

Robert Ndebele is a SACPLAN registered Professional Town and Regional Planner (Pr. Pln: A/2538/2017). He has over six years’ professional experience driving multifaceted projects in spatial planning policy and land development management.

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Sustainable Water Solutions

The interrelated triple bottom line

When we consider the word ‘sustainability’ our minds are usually drawn towards innovative, new, green-orientated products and systems such as renewable energy. However, sustainability is more than any product or group of products. No, sustainability is a way of thinking and a culture of doing things in a manner that is mindful of the environment, the economy and society (i.e. the three pillars of sustainability) all at the same time. Solutions which benefit one or two of these pillars at a time may appear sustainable at first, but more often than not, and sooner rather than later, the neglected pillar will have a negative impact greater than the initial positive impact of the solution itself.

In the case of sustainable water solutions, the focus is often drawn to either environment-society beneficiaries at the expense of economics (i.e. expensive, but green and productive solutions), or economic-society beneficiaries at the expense of the environment (i.e. cheap, productive solutions which impact the environment negatively).

An example of this skewed solution implementation the installation of rural water supply boreholes where borehole pump equipment is bought in bulk (economically) and installed to supply villagers with domestic water (society). However, in some cases the borehole yields are lower than the pump abstraction rate which results in the borehole drying up (environmental impact), the pump burning out (economic impact) and the villagers going without water (societal impact). So, the neglect of one of the sustainable pillars results in an impact on all three!

One of the most important and effective tools we have when designing and implementing sustainable water solutions, at any scale, is a sound Water Management System. A well planned, written and implemented water management system defines and describes both the current water system at the Site and the envisaged/target water system, with the objectives for sustainability stated clearly. The goal of the Water Management System should be to bridge the gap between the current water balance (i.e. water inputs, uses, etc.) and the sustainability objectives (e.g. reduction of water consumption through grey water reclamation).

Users should be aware of both the current status and the objectives, to allow them to develop their own approach to achieving the objectives with an added sense of ownership. By allowing this ownership of the solution at an individual level, a sustainable water solution is far more likely to not only succeed in its initial objectives, but also improve organically over time through the initiative of the induvial users.

In conclusion, when considering a sustainable water solution, whether it’s for your home, business, or construction site, it is important to remember all three of the pillars of sustainability and make sure each benefits from the solution. The best way to achieve this is through an effective Water Management System where users are informed in terms of the existing and envisaged water systems and provided with a framework to develop their own, individual approaches to achieving these objectives and maintaining the system for future generations.

About the Author

Matthew Damhuis

“It is important to educate ourselves.With the drought Groundwater is the solution”


Matthew is a hydrogeologist with experience in the South African and African environments. He has worked in a number of African countries, including Mali, Zambia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Botswana and Mozambique.

For the past 7 years Matthew has been completing groundwater numerical models for environmental applications, as well as more complex applications such as bankable feasibility studies.

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